KB-1980 REFERENCES command denied to user '<user>'@'<host>' for table '<schema>.<table>'


After upgrading Appian, the application server is unable to start and the following is observed in the application server log:

ERROR liquibase.changelog.ChangeSet - Change Set db-changelog-000168-api-key-table.xml::000168.1.2::appian failed.  Error: REFERENCES command denied to user '<user>'@'<host>' for table '<schema>.<table>' [Failed SQL: ALTER TABLE <schema>.api_key ADD CONSTRAINT api_key_usrid_fk FOREIGN KEY (usr_id) REFERENCES <schema>.<table> (id)


The RDBMS user connecting to the primary database does not have sufficient permissions. These permissions might have changed as a result of upgrading the RDBMS.


  1. Stop the application server.
  2. Grant <user> full permissions on the <schema> for the Appian primary database. Eg, for MySQL this can be done with the following query: GRANT ALL ON <schema>.* TO '<user>'@'<host>';
  1. Start the application server.

Affected Versions

This article applies to all versions of Appian.

Last Reviewed: August 2019